The Rise And Fall Of ESG

by | Apr 28, 2024 | ESG, Sustainability

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One of the biggest challenges we’ve faced in recent years is climate change, a problem deeply rooted in our reliance on fossil fuels. In response, governments have introduced various rules to reduce carbon emissions. But it’s not just governments stepping up—many businesses are also voluntarily changing their practices to be more environmentally friendly. Among these efforts, Environmental, Social, and Governance (ESG) standards have become well-known, promising to evaluate companies not just on their profits but on their overall impact on the world. However, the journey of ESG hasn’t been smooth. What started as a hopeful strategy for combining sustainability with business success has met resistance and criticism, leading to a serious debate about its effectiveness. This story of “The Rise and Fall of ESG” looks at how this approach gained popularity, the challenges it’s facing now, and the ongoing discussion about whether it can really help businesses be both ethical and profitable.

The Rise of ESG

The concept of ESG first emerged on the investment horizon in the early 2000s, although the roots of socially responsible investing can be traced back much further. The real pivot toward ESG began with the publication of the landmark study “Who Cares Wins” in 2005, which was endorsed by over 20 financial institutions under the aegis of the UN Global Compact. This report argued that integrating environmental, social, and corporate governance factors into capital markets made good business sense and led to more sustainable markets and better societal outcomes.

The rationale was straightforward: companies that are responsible stewards of the environment, maintain good relationships with communities and govern themselves with transparency and integrity are less risky and more likely to be sustainable in the long run. This approach was quickly recognized as adding a valuable dimension to traditional financial analysis, which typically focused only on financial metrics.

The aftermath of the 2005 report saw a significant uptake in ESG criteria among global investors, with numerous studies demonstrating that companies adhering to high ESG standards often yielded better financial performance and were less vulnerable to risks. This historical shift not only marked a broadening in investor strategies but also signified a move toward more ethically oriented investment practices.

In subsequent years, ESG criteria have become a cornerstone in global investment decision-making, influencing everything from stock selection to bond issuances and becoming a fundamental part of the dialogue between shareholders and companies. Yet, as we explore the ‘Rise and Fall of ESG’, it becomes evident that while the rise was marked by widespread acceptance and integration into global investing strategies, the fall, or perceived decline, is characterized by growing scepticism and critique concerning the actual effectiveness and impact of ESG initiatives.

Here’s a deeper look at how ESG gained its footing and grew to influence global investment and corporate strategies to help you better understand the rise and fall of ESG:

Early Adoption and Rationale

The early adopters of ESG were forward-thinking investors who saw beyond the traditional metrics of financial performance. Their rationale was straightforward yet profound: integrating environmental, social, and governance factors into investment analysis could reduce risks and enhance returns. They believed that companies paying attention to these non-financial factors were better prepared for the long term, managing risks ranging from environmental disasters to social unrest and poor management practices more effectively. This belief was not just about avoiding risks; it also identified opportunities in companies poised for sustainable growth by being adaptive to global challenges.

Regulatory Support and Global Initiatives

The rise of ESG investing has been significantly supported by global initiatives and regulatory frameworks that encourage sustainable practices. Two pivotal moments in this context are the adoption of the Paris Agreement and the UN’s Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). These frameworks have set clear environmental and social targets for countries and, by extension, businesses worldwide, pushing companies to align their operations with broader global sustainability goals. Governments have also started to enact regulations that require companies to disclose ESG-related information, making it easier for investors to assess a company’s commitment to ESG principles.

Growth in Investments

The Rise of ESG

The financial sector’s commitment to ESG principles has seen a remarkable growth in assets under management (AUM) in ESG funds. According to reports from the Global Sustainable Investment Alliance, sustainable investment assets worldwide have grown to over $30.3 trillion globally in sustainable assets up from $22.8 trillion in 2016. This rapid growth underscores the increasing importance investors place on companies’ social and environmental impacts, not just their economic returns.

Influence on Corporate Strategies

The widespread adoption of ESG criteria has had a profound impact on corporate strategies across the globe. Companies are increasingly under pressure not only from regulations but also from investors and customers to demonstrate their commitment to sustainable practices. This pressure has led many companies to enhance their transparency, often publishing detailed sustainability reports that outline their strategies and achievements in meeting ESG criteria. Moreover, there has been a noticeable shift in corporate governance structures to include ESG factors at the board level, ensuring that these issues receive direct oversight from the highest levels of management.

In summary, the rise of ESG investing reflects a fundamental shift in how investors and companies view the intersection of business and societal impact. By emphasizing the importance of environmental stewardship, social responsibility, and sound governance, ESG investing has redefined what it means to be a successful and sustainable business in the 21st century.

Also Read: Top 10 ESG Companies Of 2024

Challenges and Criticisms of ESG

Despite the rapid growth and acceptance of Environmental, Social, and Governance (ESG) criteria in the investment world, several significant challenges and criticisms have emerged, questioning the effectiveness and integrity of ESG initiatives. Let’s examine the main factors contributing to the narrative of the rise and fall of ESG.


One of the most prevalent criticisms is greenwashing, a practice where companies misrepresent their environmental efforts to appear more sustainable than they actually are. This can involve exaggerating the impact of green initiatives or simply publicizing normal environmental compliance as extraordinary efforts. Greenwashing undermines the trust and integrity of ESG criteria because it can deceive investors and consumers who are genuinely interested in supporting environmentally responsible companies. For instance, a company might tout an extensive recycling program to distract from its larger, more damaging environmental impacts, such as high levels of emissions or deforestation practices.

Lack of Standardization

Another major issue facing ESG investing is the lack of standardization in ESG metrics. Unlike financial performance, which has universally accepted accounting standards, ESG criteria can vary significantly between organizations and rating systems. This variance makes it challenging for investors to compare companies directly or assess the true impact of their ESG activities. For example, what one rating agency might consider an excellent score in social responsibility could be considered only mediocre by another, based on different underlying metrics or weights assigned to specific issues. This lack of consistency complicates efforts to integrate ESG data into investment analysis reliably and can diminish the credibility of ESG claims.

Performance Debate

There is also an ongoing debate about the financial performance of ESG investments. Critics argue that while ESG funds may perform well during certain market conditions, there is insufficient evidence to prove that they consistently outperform non-ESG benchmarks. Some studies suggest that ESG investments can lead to better returns, attributing this to companies being better managed and less risky. However, other research indicates that ESG funds’ performance often aligns closely with broader market trends, suggesting that any outperformance might not necessarily stem from ESG factors but from other coincidental aspects of the market environment during the time of measurement.

For instance, during the market volatility caused by the COVID-19 pandemic, many ESG funds outperformed their counterparts, which some attributed to their lower exposure to the negatively impacted oil and gas industries. However, sceptics argue this outperformance was more about market dynamics than the inherent virtues of ESG principles.

These challenges highlight the complexity of implementing and evaluating ESG initiatives in practice. For ESG to continue gaining traction and respect in the financial world, it will be crucial to address these issues through improved transparency, better standardization of metrics, and ongoing research into the actual impacts of ESG investments on both financial returns and societal outcomes.

Also Read: ESG & Sustainability: Are They Similar Or Different?

Perceived Decline or “Fall” of ESG

While Environmental, Social, and Governance (ESG) investing has seen significant growth and acceptance over the years, recent developments have cast shadows over its continued ascendancy. Several factors contribute to what some perceive as the decline or fall of ESG’s influence in the investment world.

Recent Criticisms and Backlash

ESG investing has faced growing scrutiny and backlash, particularly in the United States, where it has become a polarizing issue. For instance, in 2022, several U.S. states led by conservative administrations have pushed back against the incorporation of ESG principles in public pension funds and other state investments. Florida’s Governor Ron DeSantis and Texas Governor Greg Abbott have been vocal critics. Abbott signed legislation banning state investment in companies that divest from oil and gas because these companies often follow ESG principles. DeSantis argued that ESG considerations in state pension fund investments introduce unnecessary economic risks and politicize state investments.

This pushback is often motivated by concerns that ESG investing prioritizes political ideologies over economic returns, potentially compromising the financial objectives of public funds meant to secure retirees’ futures.

Economic and Market Forces

Economic downturns and market volatility have also forced a reevaluation of ESG priorities. During periods of high inflation and economic uncertainty, such as those experienced globally since 2020, companies and investors may prioritize financial stability over ESG criteria. Additionally, heightened concerns over energy security, particularly in the context of the Russia-Ukraine conflict, have led some to question the practicality of rapidly transitioning away from fossil fuels—a key aspect of many ESG agendas.

This shift reflects broader economic pressures where immediate financial and security concerns temporarily sideline longer-term sustainability goals. It highlights a critical tension within ESG investing: balancing immediate economic needs with long-term environmental and social objectives.

Public and Investor Sentiment

Changing public and investor sentiments have also influenced the perception of ESG’s effectiveness. While there remains strong support for sustainability and corporate responsibility, there is growing scepticism about whether ESG initiatives are truly impactful or merely symbolic. This scepticism is compounded by high-profile accusations of greenwashing and the challenges of measuring the genuine impact of ESG policies.

A survey conducted by PricewaterhouseCoopers in 2021 revealed that while 76% of global consumers and employees favor companies with sustainable practices, nearly half are distrustful of corporate sustainability claims, indicating a gap between ESG intentions and perceived authenticity.

Moreover, the politicization of ESG, particularly in the U.S., has polarized public opinion, with some viewing ESG as a tool for advancing certain political agendas rather than a genuine effort to achieve sustainable and ethical investing.

The perceived decline of ESG investing reflects a complex interplay of political, economic, and social factors. To sustain its growth and impact, the ESG movement will need to address these challenges head-on, ensuring that it can deliver tangible benefits without compromising financial performance. This will require clearer standards, greater transparency, and a concerted effort to depoliticize its goals, focusing instead on the universal benefits of sustainability and responsible governance.

Also Read: ESG Rating: What Are The Standards In US, EU and Gulf Region

Future of ESG

The narrative of  ‘Rise and Fall of ESG’ is complex, shaped by both its initial successes and the significant hurdles it faces today. Despite recent criticisms and challenges, the core principles of Environmental, Social, and Governance (ESG) investing continue to hold significant potential for influencing global investment strategies. As ESG faces a pivotal moment, its future will likely hinge on its ability to adapt, evolve, and leverage technological advancements.

Here’s a look at what the future might hold for ESG:

Adaptation and Evolution

In response to the criticisms and the complex landscape of global investments, ESG criteria are likely to undergo significant adaptations to enhance their credibility and effectiveness.

  • Clearer Definitions and Standards:  The development of more rigorous, standardized metrics that provide a clearer, more quantifiable measure of a company’s ESG performance. This could involve setting industry-specific benchmarks and clearer guidelines on what constitutes good ESG practice, reducing the room for greenwashing and subjective interpretations.
  • The evolvement of ESG frameworks: To integrate more comprehensive risk management tools that consider not just the financial impacts of climate change and social issues but also the systemic risks posed by biodiversity loss and global inequalities. This evolution will likely also see a greater alignment with global sustainability goals, providing a unified roadmap that guides corporate strategies more effectively.
  • Focus on Materiality: Prioritizing ESG criteria that have a significant financial impact on companies will strengthen the argument that ESG investing doesn’t compromise returns.
  • Integration with Financial Reporting: Integrating ESG metrics into mainstream financial reporting will improve transparency and comparability between companies.
  • Focus on Outcomes: Shifting the focus from actions to measurable outcomes of ESG initiatives will demonstrate their effectiveness.

Role of Technology

Technology, particularly advancements in artificial intelligence (AI) and big data, is set to play a crucial role in transforming ESG reporting and implementation.

  • AI: AI can help analyze vast amounts of data to identify trends, risks, and opportunities that human analysts might overlook. For instance, machine learning algorithms can monitor and evaluate real-time environmental impact data, providing more timely and accurate assessments of a company’s environmental footprint.
  • Big Data Analysis: Big data can enhance transparency in ESG reporting by enabling the aggregation and analysis of large datasets from diverse sources, including satellite imagery for monitoring deforestation or real-time data tracking supply chain ethics.
  • Blockchain Technology:  Blockchain technology could further enhance transparency by creating immutable records of a company’s ESG claims, making it easier for investors to verify claims independently.
  • Standardized Reporting Platforms: Technology can be used to develop platforms for consistent and comparable ESG reporting by companies.

Global Variations in ESG Adoption

The adoption and implementation of ESG criteria will continue to vary significantly across different regions, influenced by local political, economic, and social factors.

  • Regional Political Landscape: ESG adoption might vary significantly based on regional priorities, leading to different ESG practices in different parts of the world. For example, European countries, under the EU’s Green Deal, are likely to continue leading on ESG integration, given their proactive regulatory frameworks and public support for sustainability initiatives. In contrast, in regions like the United States, ESG may see a more contentious path, with support and implementation varying widely by state and political affiliation.
  • Economic Development: Emerging markets could experience a unique trajectory in ESG adoption, driven by the urgent need for sustainable development coupled with challenges such as lack of funding, technology, and governance structures. However, these regions could leapfrog to advanced ESG practices by integrating new technologies and innovations directly into their growing economic infrastructures. Developed economies might prioritize long-term sustainability goals, while developing economies might prioritize short-term economic growth.
  • Social Values: Societies with strong environmental or social consciousness will likely see more demand for ESG investing. If global standards and regulations for ESG reporting emerge, it could lead to a more unified approach.

The future of ESG is not without its challenges, yet it remains a dynamic and potent concept capable of driving significant positive change in global investment and corporate behaviours. As ESG criteria adapt and evolve, backed by technological advancements, they hold the promise to not only enhance financial returns but also contribute to the broader goals of sustainable and equitable growth worldwide.

Also Read: ESG Essentials: Navigating Sustainable Business Practices



  • Saquib Siddiqui

    Saquib Siddiqui is the founder of Sigma Earth, a comprehensive platform dedicated to sustainability. With a deep commitment to promoting sustainable development, Saquib leads initiatives that aim to integrate eco-friendly practices into various sectors. His work focuses on creating solutions that not only support environmental conservation but also foster social and economic growth. Through Sigma Earth, Saquib strives to empower communities and organizations to make sustainable choices that benefit both people and the planet.


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