Environmental Impact Of Solid Waste Landfilling

by | Dec 15, 2023 | Conservation, Solid Waste Management

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Ever wondered what happens after you toss out the trash? Most of it goes on a journey to massive landfills, where mountains of waste transform landscapes. Surprisingly, a single landfill can hold up to 25 years of a city’s discarded memories. But beneath these rising mounds lies a hidden world of environmental change. From methane emissions that rival car exhausts to toxic brews that threaten our waterways, the impact of solid waste landfills on the environment is both vast and intricate.

As we peel back the layers of earth and waste, the story of landfills reveals urgent questions about our throwaway culture and the planet’s future. Let’s delve deep into the hidden consequences of our everyday disposals and understand the impact of solid waste landfills.

What is Solid Waste?

Solid waste is defined as rubbish, refuse, sewage treatment plant sludge, incinerator ash, mining waste, and building and demolition debris. Moreover, it contains a minor amount of hazardous trash. There are a variety of legal ways to get rid of this trash. They include landfills, industrial surface impoundments, composting, and recycling. Garbage disposal in landfills is less disruptive to individuals than other alternatives. Before entering a landfill, waste might be in any shape or condition.

Solid waste disposal in landfills is still the most cost-effective option in most situations. Thus, landfills will still be the most desirable method for disposing of solid waste. Landfills dispose of up to 95% of the solid waste produced worldwide, depending on the location. The composition of solid waste varies greatly depending on various socioeconomic circumstances, geographic location, time of year, garbage collection and disposal techniques, sampling and sorting procedures, and many other variables.

Environmental Impact of Solid Waste Landfilling

What Is The Environmental Impact of Solid Waste Landfilling?

Landfills were first developed historically to safeguard society and the environment from the adverse effects of other means of waste disposal, such as open-air burning, open-pit dumping, and ocean dumping. Although landfills reduced some negative impacts of previous methods, others emerged due to gas and leachate accumulation. In addition to possible health risks, these worries encompass landfill settling, fires and explosions, vegetation damage, Foul odors, groundwater pollution, air pollution, and global warming.

Lets have a look at the Impact of Solid Waste Landfilling:

1. Fires and Explosions

Although methane-rich landfill gas offers a chance for energy recovery, it is frequently viewed as a risk due to its flammability, capacity to combine explosively with air, and propensity to diffuse and advect outside the landfill’s limits. Diffusion is the physical process that makes gas travel from places of higher to areas of lower concentration as it seeks constant attention throughout the landfill volume. Gas travels from areas of more significant pressure to lower pressure due to pressure gradients, which causes advection. Diffusion and advection rates are principally influenced by the landfill’s physical characteristics and gas generation rates of the landfill, the permeability of the waste stream, the temperature and moisture content, the formation of the soil around it, and variations in barometric pressure.

Landfill gas travels through pathways that will allow it to vent through the dump’s lid or migrate through the sides and into the surrounding soil. The migratory gas enters structures and subterranean infrastructure built on or near a dump site, generating gas pockets and possible explosive dangers. There are risks of fire and explosion outside of landfills as well. On-site fires are frequent, and many occur underground due to air entrainment into the landfill, creating a methane and oxygen mixture that can support a fire.

2. Groundwater Pollution

Groundwater is by far the most seriously threatened by leachate occurrence. Leachate will either move laterally to a point where it discharges to the ground’s surface as a seep, or it will move through the landfill’s base and into the subsurface formations once it reaches the bottom of the landfill or an impermeable layer within the landfill. Leachate has been linked to the contamination of aquifers beneath landfills depending on the nature of these formations and in the absence of a leachate collecting system. Due to its high solubility, carbon dioxide, found in high concentrations in landfill gas, is said to have an enormous potential to pollute groundwater. Furthermore, it has been demonstrated that the emission of trace hazardous chemicals from landfill gas seriously threatens groundwater and air quality.

3. Vegetation Damage

When a landfill closes, many are turned into recreational areas, golf courses, farms, and occasionally commercial projects. The primary cause of the damage is an oxygen shortage in the root zone brought on by the direct displacement of oxygen by landfill gas. Due to concentration and pressure gradients, landfill gas can migrate upward without a gas control measure and vent through the landfill cover into the atmosphere. Plant roots are exposed to high quantities of methane and carbon dioxide, the two main components of landfill gas, displacing oxygen from the air during this process. Plants asphyxiate and die from a lack of oxygen. Methane oxidation at the surface by methane-eating bacteria (methanotrophs), which may not directly affect plant development, is another reason that causes an oxygen shortage.

4. Foul Odors

Odors are caused mainly by modest concentrations of odorous elements in landfill gas released into the atmosphere, like esters, hydrogen sulfide, organosulphur, alkylbenzenes, limonene, and other hydrocarbons. Depending on the proportion of the odorous elements within the gas, the smell of landfill gas can range significantly from being somewhat pleasant to bitter and harsh. These concentrations will change depending on the type and age of the waste, its decomposition stage and gas production rate, and the type of microbial populations it contains, among other things. Although many odorous trace chemicals may be poisonous, they have traditionally been seen more as an annoyance to the environment than a direct threat to human health. Weather factors, including wind, temperature, pressure, and humidity, are significant in how far odors travel from the landfill limits.

5. Landfill Settling

The decomposition of the waste inside a landfill raises the vacancy ratio. It decreases the structural integrity of the trash, which causes a significant loss of volume and settling, which usually makes it difficult to develop finished landfill sites. Insufficient waste compaction, the movement of smaller particles into larger voids caused by biological and physicochemical changes, subsurface fires (raveling), consolidation or mechanical compression due to the thickness and weight of the refuse, or the importance of construction materials and structures built on the landfill, are additional causes of landfill settlement.

6. Air Pollution

The gas released from landfills primarily consists of methane and carbon dioxide. Still, data suggests that it also contains a wide range of other substances in trace amounts that are harmful to the environment and human health. These compounds can be found in landfill gas due to regular residential trash, the co-disposal of light industrial wastes, or unlawful dumping. According to microbial studies, landfill biodegradation by-products may also create several of these compounds. Air pollution and associated health risks are the main issues with trace gas emissions. The release of VOCs is thought to have the potential to raise cancer risks in the neighborhood and promote the creation of ambient ozone. By preventing methanogens from growing, trace gases may also impact methane production. They may also cause gas recovery equipment to corrode.

7. Global Warming

Methane and carbon dioxide emissions from landfill surfaces significantly impact the greenhouse effect and global warming. Recent increases in atmospheric methane concentrations have prompted extensive characterization studies of the world’s methane sources and sinks. Solid waste landfills are increasingly contributing significantly to atmospheric methane because of ongoing trends in population growth and urbanization unless recovery control methods are implemented.


We’re facing a big environmental problem, and the impact of solid waste landfills cannot be neglected. Our large garbage dumps show how much we’re throwing away. The practice of dumping waste in landfills results in the formation of gas and leachate. Among the various elements contributing to the gas and leachate creation at landfill sites are microbial decomposition, environmental circumstances, refuse characteristics, and landfilling activities. At both existing and new facilities, the escape of gas and leachate from landfill boundaries and their release into the environment raises serious environmental issues, including the risk of global warming, fires, explosions, vegetation damage, offensive odors, landfill settlement, and gas and leachate migration.

It’s startling to consider that landfills account for nearly 15% of global methane emissions—a potent greenhouse gas. But it’s not just about the air; our land and water bear the brunt too, with leachates threatening aquatic ecosystems. Yet, the future isn’t bleak. Solutions like recycling, composting, and waste-to-energy technologies shine a light on sustainable paths forward. If we pivot towards a circular economy, prioritize waste reduction, and embrace innovative waste management, we can transform our landfills from environmental liabilities to testimonies of change. It’s time to reimagine waste, not as an end-point but as the beginning of a greener, cleaner world.

Also Read: Role of Various Organizations in Solid Waste Management



  • Dr. Emily Greenfield

    Dr. Emily Greenfield is a highly accomplished environmentalist with over 30 years of experience in writing, reviewing, and publishing content on various environmental topics. Hailing from the United States, she has dedicated her career to raising awareness about environmental issues and promoting sustainable practices.

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