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Recovery, Rehabilitation, and Reconstruction

by | Apr 18, 2022 | Disaster Management

Rehabilitation, Reconstruction, and Development

Recovery after a disaster has three separate yet intertwined meanings. To begin with, it is a goal that entails restoring regular community activities that have been disturbed by disaster impacts – in most people’s perceptions, precisely as they were before the crisis hit.

Second, it is a stage of the emergency management cycle that begins with the stabilization of disaster circumstances (the conclusion of the emergency response phase) and concludes when the community has returned to normal activities. Third, it is a method by which society accomplishes its aim of resuming regular activities. Both operations planned before the accident and those improvised after the event are included in the recovery process.

In reality, the repair of shelter and community infrastructure is a critical first step in the recovery process.

The first step toward restoring and improving local habitat is to implement a reconstruction program. In a constrained region, it introduces enhanced construction systems, establishes basic building element supply, improves the skills and management capacity of families, local agencies, and village craftsmen, and establishes local information and knowledge systems.

The bigger objective is to develop a holistic picture of “Habitat” that connects the housing process with the ability to make and exercise informed decisions about building construction, habitat restoration, and economic development.

The following steps are involved in re-establishing people’s life through rehabilitation efforts:

  • Ascending the tiers of the social ladder from home to the habitat to livelihood.
  • The establishment of local awareness, as well as training for everybody, so that people may take charge of the housing process.
  • Building capacity and connecting to businesses—livelihood support
  • Creating economic surpluses through designing livelihood solutions in the farming and non-farming sectors based on new economic possibilities (that can be directed to responsive housing).
  • Putting in place a foundation for community access to institutional housing financing.

More details: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7152120/

Role of Different Organizations in Rehabilitation

Disaster recovery is a multifaceted area that needs coordinated contributions from a variety of entities from many sectors. Physical healing, social recovery, and economic recovery are all part of the disaster recovery process. Government agencies, as well as non-governmental organizations (NGOs), play an important part in the rehabilitation process.

Role of Urban and rural local bodies: Because they are at the grassroots level of government and hence near the community, Panchayati Raj Institutions (PRIs) and Urban Local Bodies (ULBs) are the greatest platforms for institutionalizing such activities. They’re also the formal tools for taking governance-related actions. PRIs and ULBs have become even more important as organizational role-players in Community-based Disaster Management (CBDM) as a result of the 73rd and 74th Constitutional Amendments, as discussed in several of this Course’s Units.

Role of NGOs: Non-governmental organizations (NGOs) play a critical role in the post-disaster recovery period. Non-governmental organizations (NGOs) play an important role in disaster-stricken areas. Food, housing, and clothing requirements are common first response components covered by NGOs. Religious organizations have probably provided the country’s most quick and well-organized reaction to natural disasters. These organizations’ inspired volunteers are fast to relocate immediately to the hamlet and can satisfy the needs of the people in a pre-trained capacity of friendship.

High Powered Committee: The Government of India created a High-Powered Committee (HPC) in August 1999 to investigate the issues that needed to be considered in the development of a national disaster management policy. The participation of many agencies in recovery measures throughout two years More than 600 NGOs took part in a countrywide NGO consultation organized by 217 HPC. Four nodal NGOs functioned as regional coordinators and organized the consultations. The HPC attempted to solve this issue by forming a countrywide network of non-governmental organizations (NGOs) known as VASUDEVA, which stands for “Voluntary Agencies for Sustainable Universal Development and Emergency Voluntary Action.”

 

Rehabilitation

Reconstruction

This response approach uses local building technology-based firms to fulfil the current (immediate) requirement for rebuilding. If reconstruction initiatives are intended to incorporate local labour, they will generate necessary (although temporary) jobs, resulting in an instant boost to the local economy. Simultaneously, locally based construction material and skill firms maintain a steady supply of high-quality building materials and talents. In the long run, this is anticipated to result in a sustained improvement in housing conditions as well as a broadening of the region’s livelihood alternatives.

The rebuilding program gives a significant edge to new businesses from the start. It creates the initial captive market, offers essential exposure to new technologies and improved construction techniques, and increases market adoption of these new “products.” A sensitive rebuilding effort will unavoidably include a process of teaching the impacted public about the benefits of safer construction, instilling a sense of gratitude for the better systems. Families would want to employ these materials and techniques to extend their homes beyond the first repair period.

A key consideration here is that new materials and techniques should be compatible with the target communities’ financial resources. In this case, a multi-pronged strategy is required.

  • The impacted population’s long-term affordability should be considered while selecting upgraded technology and construction methods. This entails the proper selection of raw materials, manufacturing techniques, and delivery scales. A perfect blend of resources from huge industries and materials from small businesses, with supplies acquired from regional construction hubs.
  • A parallel intervention aimed at enhancing the quality of life by expanding livelihood possibilities and improving land, water, and resource management techniques, resulting in increased community buying power.
  • Housing and livelihood financing interventions are necessary to enable individuals to access available construction alternatives.

Disaster Resistant House Construction

Following the Yokohama Conference in July 1994, an Expert Committee was formed to evaluate disaster-related concerns and develop appropriate responses. It’s worth noting that disaster-resistant building is one of the most critical topics being addressed at the policy level in terms of disaster mitigation and prevention. This topic was covered in depth in the Expert Committee’s Report.

It is preferable to avoid hilly slopes and locations with sensitive and clayey soil for earthquake-resistant buildings. It is better to have multiple terraced blocks rather than a single huge block with footings in several clusters. The structure as a whole should be almost symmetrical. In an earthquake, simple rectangular forms perform better than those with many projections.

In the event of a cyclone, structures should be built in regions with natural hard-level foundations that provide a protective screen from powerful winds. The use of a flat roof should be avoided. Antennas and chimneys, eave projections, sunshades, and other projecting components should all be considered. Adequate diagonal bracing, strengthened machinery, stronger plate glass, and purlin anchoring to gable ends should all be included in the design. Prohibited zones should be avoided at all costs when it comes to flood-resistant housing.

The majority of new buildings with heavy roofs and weak walls (random rubble in mud mortar) have proven fatal. Timber roofs connected by timber and tie-bands, horizontal timber beams reaching over the whole building, uniting the entire structure, and giving it the appearance of a cage, are seen on older homes at higher elevations. Despite the mud and stone masonry, such dwellings have fared well.

Rehabilitation

For a large number of survivors with severe and long-term crippling impairments, rehabilitation is critical in natural disasters. Rehabilitation specialists can help patients live longer, feel less disabled, and have better clinical results and engagement. In disaster-prone nations, competent rehabilitation manpower and services are either few or non-existent, and complete disaster management strategies that include rehabilitation have yet to be formed.

The World Health Organization’s Emergency Medical Team strategy and standards provide organization and consistency for disaster preparedness, planning, and delivery. There are still many obstacles to overcome in terms of implementing these standards in catastrophe situations and integrating rehabilitation staff.

There are three basic forms of rehabilitation, namely physical, social, and psychological, since social, cultural, economic, and political aspects create the parameters of a comprehensive recovery plan.

Physical Rehabilitation: Physical rehabilitation is a crucial aspect of the recovery process. It entails the rebuilding of physical infrastructures such as dwellings, buildings, trains, roads, communication networks, water supply, and power, among other things.

Social Rehabilitation: Social rehabilitation is an essential aspect of disaster recovery, but it is generally overlooked in most post-disaster programmes since it is thought to be a communal role. To withstand the effects of a calamity, vulnerable populations would require extra social assistance.

Psychological Rehabilitation: The psychological anguish of losing relatives and friends, as well as the scars of the catastrophe’s overall shock, can take considerably longer to heal than disaster management stakeholders commonly believe. As a result, it is critical to consider social welfare and psychological support programs as soon as a disaster occurs so that they can become an integral element of recovery efforts.

More about Rehabilitation – https://egyankosh.ac.in/bitstream/123456789/25891/1/Unit-15.pdf

 

Recovery

Recovery from a disaster is frequently a long and winding road. Safety, as well as emotional and physical well-being, are top priorities. Knowing how to get help if it’s available makes the process go more quickly and smoothly.

  • Your primary worry following a disaster is the health and safety of your family. You should think about potential safety hazards and keep an eye on your family’s health and well-being.
  • If you’re coming home after a disaster, be aware that it might be physically and psychologically exhausting. Above everything, proceed with prudence. You may be eager to visit your house, but don’t go back until local officials say it’s safe to do so.
  • Following a disaster, administer first aid and seek medical assistance for everyone who has been hurt.
  • Make sure there are no injuries. If a person is critically injured, do not attempt to move them unless they are at imminent risk of death or additional harm. If you need to relocate someone who is unconscious, first support their neck and back, then ask for aid right away.

Recovery usually starts while disaster response actions are still underway. The disaster recovery process is concerned with rehabilitating, redeveloping, and regenerating catastrophe-affected communities. Recovery efforts will continue until all systems have returned to normal or have improved. Returning key life-support systems to minimal operational standards, temporary housing, public information, health and safety education, reconstruction, counselling programs, and economic impact studies are among the immediate and long-term recovery initiatives. Data collecting for rebuilding and documenting lessons learned are examples of information resources and services.

 

Author

  • The author has done a master's in Environmental science and is currently working as chief Environmental Advisor with New Delhi State Government.

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