How Are Polar Bears Affected By Climate Change?

by | Feb 2, 2024 | Environment, Wildlife

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In the icy realms of the Arctic, the majestic polar bear reigns as the undisputed monarch. However, the relentless march of climate change is transforming the polar bear’s habitat at an alarming pace, presenting many challenges for these iconic creatures. In this blog, we’ll explore the profound effects of climate change on polar bears and the urgent need for global action to ensure their survival.

How are Polar Bears Affected by Climate Change?

Polar bears are affected by climate change as follows:

1. Melting Sea Ice and Hunting Challenges

Melting sea ice in the Arctic, primarily driven by global climate warming, poses severe challenges for polar bears, a species highly adapted to life on sea ice. The reduction in sea ice affects their habitat and significantly impacts their hunting behaviours and food availability.

How are Polar Bears Affected by Climate Change?

  • Impact on Hunting and Feeding: Polar bears depend on sea ice as a crucial platform for hunting seals, their primary food source. With the ice melting, polar bears find it increasingly difficult to access their traditional hunting grounds. This leads to less frequent opportunities for hunting and, consequently, reduced food availability. The melting ice also forces polar bears to spend more time on land, pushing them to turn to terrestrial food sources, which may not be as nutritionally suitable or abundant as their usual prey.
  • Altered Movement Patterns: The decline in sea ice compels polar bears to travel greater distances for food. Recent observations indicate that polar bears in the Beaufort Sea have had to venture far outside their traditional Arctic hunting grounds. This increased travel expends more energy and disrupts their normal movement patterns. The necessity to move farther north during summer when the ice melts and then back again in fall and winter as the ice forms is taking a substantial toll on the bears​.
  • Risk of Extinction: The ongoing and rapid melting of Arctic sea ice, a result of global warming caused by the burning of fossil fuels, poses a significant threat to the survival of polar bears. As the Arctic continues to warm at current rates, the habitat of polar bears diminishes. This shrinking habitat, combined with the challenges in hunting and feeding, increases their vulnerability to extinction. Polar bears might soon find themselves in fewer numbers and places across the Arctic.
  • Longer Fasting Periods and Reduced Hunting Success: Over 96% of polar bears’ critical habitat comprises sea ice. The diminishing ice cover leads to longer fasting periods for polar bears and a consequent reduction in their hunting success. This decline in the ability to hunt effectively poses severe risks to their health and survival, further exacerbating the threat to this iconic species.

The melting of Arctic sea ice profoundly impacts polar bears, affecting their hunting patterns, movement, and overall survival and placing them at an increased risk of extinction.

2. Starvation and Declining Body Condition

The retreat of sea ice in the Arctic due to climate change profoundly affects polar bears, particularly regarding their ability to hunt, nutritional status, and overall body condition.

  • Malnutrition: As the sea ice melts, polar bears must spend more time fasting on land. This increased fasting period directly affects the nutritional status of polar bears, especially lactating mothers. Studies have found that polar bear mothers produce lower-energy milk or may even stop producing milk for their cubs when fasting for extended periods on land. This indicates malnutrition due to reduced access to their primary food source, seals, which they usually hunt on sea ice.
  • Physical Condition and Reproductive Success: The decline in sea ice concentrations alters polar bears’ behaviour and negatively impacts their physical condition and health. The reduction in body condition and growth, primarily due to reduced access to prey, has been documented in at least two of the 19 recognized polar bear populations. This decline in physical health has severe implications for the reproductive success of polar bears, as poorer body condition can affect their ability to reproduce and rear young successfully​.
  • Increased Vulnerability to Starvation: Polar bears are increasingly vulnerable to starvation with shrinking sea ice. The loss of their primary hunting platform significantly diminishes their ability to access seals, leading to prolonged periods without adequate food. This situation has been observed across the Arctic, where scientists have noted a marked increase in starvation among polar bear populations. The direct link between climate change-induced sea ice loss and polar bear starvation underscores the severity of the situation and its impact on the survival of this iconic species.

The retreat of Arctic sea ice is causing longer fasting periods, malnutrition, declining body condition, and increased vulnerability to starvation among polar bears. Collectively, these factors have serious implications for polar bear populations’ overall health and reproductive success, highlighting the urgent need for actions to mitigate climate change and its effects on Arctic ecosystems.

3. Maternal Dens at Risk

Pregnant polar bears typically create maternity dens on the sea ice to give birth and nurture their cubs. However, the diminishing and unstable ice conditions threaten these dens. The increasing frequency of ice breakup can result in the abandonment or collapse of maternal dens, putting polar bear cubs at risk during their critical early months.

4. Longer Swims and Drowning Incidents

With melting ice, polar bears are forced to swim longer distances between ice floes for prey. These extended swims are energetically demanding and increase the risk of drowning, especially for cubs and weaker individuals. The loss of sea ice habitat limits the bears’ ability to rest and hunt effectively.

5. Climate-induced Stress and Behavioral Changes

polar bears climate change

Climate change-induced alterations in the Arctic environment contribute to stress among polar bears. Changes in ice conditions, food availability, and human-bear interactions can lead to shifts in the bears’ behaviour, potentially affecting their social structure and overall well-being.


The plight of polar bears is a stark reminder of the far-reaching consequences of climate change. Urgent global efforts to curb greenhouse gas emissions, mitigate the loss of Arctic sea ice, and protect polar bear habitats are imperative. As the ambassadors of the Arctic, polar bears symbolize the broader ecological challenges facing our planet. It is our collective responsibility to take action, preserve their icy kingdom, and secure a future where polar bears can continue to roam the frozen expanses of the North.

Also Read: Antarctica’s Sea Ice Melting: Reaches Historically Low



  • Dr. Emily Greenfield

    Dr. Emily Greenfield is a highly accomplished environmentalist with over 30 years of experience in writing, reviewing, and publishing content on various environmental topics. Hailing from the United States, she has dedicated her career to raising awareness about environmental issues and promoting sustainable practices.

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