Controversy Erupts Over Large-Scale Tree Removal For Hasdeo Coal Mining

by | Jan 14, 2024 | Conservation, Natural Resource Management

Home » Conservation » Controversy Erupts Over Large-Scale Tree Removal For Hasdeo Coal Mining

The Hasdeo Forest, an expanse of rich, biodiverse land, has recently been thrust into the limelight of environmental controversy. This verdant area, known for its lush greenery and diverse wildlife, faces a dire threat due to proposed large-scale coal mining activities. The substantial tree removal project has sparked a heated debate, pitting economic interests against environmental conservation.

Background of Hasdeo and Mining

The Hasdeo Forest, located in the heart of India, is an ecologically vital region, particularly noted for its rich biodiversity and significant role in supporting local communities, including indigenous tribes. This forest, encompassing an area of about 170,000 hectares in the northern district of Sarguja, Chhattisgarh, is one of the largest forest blocks in central India. It is home to over 350 species of animals and a wide variety of flora.

Background of Hasdeo and Mining

Historically, the region has been a focus for coal mining activities. However, the scale of mining proposed recently is unparalleled. The Hasdeo Arand Coalfield, spanning approximately 1,879.6 square kilometres, comprises 23 coal blocks. While coal mining is seen as crucial to meet India’s growing energy demands, it has raised significant concerns regarding environmental impact and displacement of local communities.

In 2009, the central government initially categorized Hasdeo Aranya as a ‘no-go’ zone for mining, recognizing its ecological importance. However, this status was revoked in 2011, paving the way for mining activities in the region. This decision has been met with substantial resistance from local communities, who depend on the forest for their livelihood and cultural practices. The indigenous communities, notably the Gond Adivasi, have been at the forefront of these protests, emphasizing the forest’s importance for their way of life.

The controversy intensified when it was revealed that the PEKB coal block, part of the Hasdeo Arand Coal Field, is nearing exhaustion, with a significant portion of its coal reserves inaccessible. This has raised questions about the sustainability and long-term viability of continued mining in the area.

Protests and opposition to the mining activities have been ongoing, with local communities challenging the legality of the mining activities in courts, including the High Court, NGT, and the Supreme Court. These protests have gained support from various civil society groups and political figures. Despite this, the state government of Chhattisgarh gave its final assent in 2021 for the commencement of mining activity in Hasdeo, igniting further controversy and resistance.

The region’s biodiversity, particularly its dense moist-dry deciduous sal-dominated forest tracts, is essential for maintaining its hydrological and other ecosystem services. The impact of displacement due to mining operations is a significant concern, with potential adverse effects on the community’s livelihood, identity, and culture. The area is also essential for wildlife, including elephants, and mining activities could disrupt their habitats and migration patterns.

The conflict over mining in Hasdeo Arand represents a critical challenge in balancing economic development with environmental preservation and the rights of indigenous communities. The situation in Hasdeo is a poignant example of the broader environmental and social dilemmas faced in resource-rich areas, especially in developing countries like India.

Also Read: Impacts of Humans on Ecosystems

The Controversy

The controversy surrounding the Hasdeo coal mining project centres on the significant tree removal required for its development. This project, backed by economic growth and energy needs arguments, faces strong opposition from environmentalists and local communities. They argue that such extensive deforestation would be catastrophic to the region’s fragile ecosystem.


The Hasdeo forest, known for its biodiversity and ecological importance, supports indigenous tribes and local livelihoods. The scale of the proposed deforestation has sparked widespread protests, highlighting the conflict between environmental preservation and industrial expansion. As India grapples with energy demands, the debate over the Hasdeo project reflects broader concerns about sustainable development and the conservation of natural habitats.

The situation poses a significant challenge in balancing economic needs with environmental protection and the rights of local communities reliant on the forest.

Environmental and Social Impact

The environmental and social impacts of the large-scale tree removal in Hasdeo Forest for coal mining are profound and far-reaching. Ecologically, this deforestation threatens significant biodiversity loss, exacerbating climate change by reducing vital carbon sinks and disrupting key ecosystem services. The Hasdeo Arand, known for its rich biodiversity, including over 350 species of animals, plays a crucial role in maintaining ecological balance.

Socially, the consequences are equally dire, particularly for the indigenous communities and local populations reliant on the forest. The Gond Adivasi, among other tribes, depend on the forest for material needs and as an integral part of their cultural heritage and identity. The proposed mining project, therefore, doesn’t just threaten their environment but risks eroding their cultural foundations and displacing communities, leading to loss of livelihood and identity.

Moreover, the anticipated deforestation and subsequent mining activities could disrupt the hydrological patterns and other essential ecosystem services crucial for local agriculture and allied activities, further jeopardizing these communities’ subsistence and cultural practices. The clash between economic development and environmental conservation in Hasdeo underscores a critical dilemma: balancing resource extraction with preserving ecological sanctuaries and the rights of those who call these forests home.

Legal and Policy Framework

This situation has led to a tangle of legal battles and policy debates. Environmental protection laws and government policies are being scrutinized and challenged. The outcome of these legal proceedings could set a precedent for how India balances economic development with environmental conservation.

Public Response and Activism

The public response has been one of overwhelming support for the preservation of Hasdeo Forest. Environmental groups, activists, and concerned citizens have organized protests and campaigns to raise awareness and halt the mining project. Notable environmentalists and organizations have lent their voices, demanding a reevaluation of the project’s environmental impact.

Comparative Analysis

Globally, similar conflicts between resource extraction and environmental preservation have been seen. Examples from other countries offer valuable lessons on managing these conflicts, emphasizing sustainable practices and the involvement of local communities in decision-making processes.

The decision on Hasdeo’s future will have long-lasting implications. Allowing the mining could set a dangerous precedent for other ecologically sensitive areas. Conversely, prioritizing environmental conservation could signal a shift towards more sustainable practices in resource management.


The Hasdeo Forest controversy is more than a local issue; it’s a microcosm of the global struggle between economic development and environmental preservation. It calls for a balanced approach that satisfies the energy needs without compromising the ecological and cultural integrity of the region. As global citizens, staying informed, engaging in meaningful dialogue, and advocating for sustainable solutions is imperative.

Also Read: The Global Challenge Of Stopping Deforestation: Why Is 2030 Too Late?



  • Dr. Emily Greenfield

    Dr. Emily Greenfield is a highly accomplished environmentalist with over 30 years of experience in writing, reviewing, and publishing content on various environmental topics. Hailing from the United States, she has dedicated her career to raising awareness about environmental issues and promoting sustainable practices.

    View all posts


Submit a Comment

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

Explore Categories